Volume 37, Issue 1 (2-2023)                   Med J Islam Repub Iran 2023 | Back to browse issues page

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Hazrat-e Rasool General Hospital, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , rahimzadeh.n@iums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (718 Views)
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common after pediatric renal transplantation, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria causing UTI is a therapeutic challenge in this regard. The main purpose of this study was to determine the UTI frequency, its etiologic agents, and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the first year following renal transplantation in Iranian pediatric recipients.
   Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, all of the 81 children who had undergone renal transplantation in Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital between 2012 and 2017 were enrolled. Confirmed episodes of UTI during the first year following renal transplantation were analyzed. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was determined for the causative agents of UTI. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics software (version 20). and the P < 0.05 was considered significant.
   Results: Totally, from 81 enrolled cases, 37(44.7%) cases were in the age group of 11-15 years. Overall, 19, 10, and 3 UTI episodes had occurred in the first month, from the first to sixth month, and between the sixth month and one year after transplantation, respectively. The four most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli; 31.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa; 25%), Enterococci (21.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae; 12.5%). The highest rate of resistance was reported to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones among gram-negative bacteria. However, none of the Enterococci isolates were resistant to linezolid and nitrofurantoin.
   Conclusion: Resistance to antibiotics is increasing among the pathogens causing UTI in pediatric renal transplanted cases. It is suggested to stop the administration of TMP/SMX and third-generation cephalosporins for empiric treatment of UTI in Iranian pediatric renal transplant recipients. Ciprofloxacin might be administered cautiously secondary to the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance in this group.
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