Volume 35, Issue 1 (1-2021)                   Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 | Back to browse issues page

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Soheili M, Keyvani H, Soheili M, Nasseri S. Human papilloma virus: A review study of epidemiology, carcinogenesis, diagnostic methods, and treatment of all HPV-related cancers. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021; 35 (1) :499-514
URL: http://mjiri.iums.ac.ir/article-1-7163-en.html
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, & Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran , sherko.nasseri@muk.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2638 Views)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered as the most common viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This poses an increasingly interdisciplinary medical challenge. Since there is vast scattered information in databases about HPV and the correlated diseases, we decided to collect useful data so that the experts can get a more comprehensive view of HPV.
   Methods: In this article, HPV-associated diseases, prevalence, prevention, and new treatments are discussed. The retrieved  articles reporting the latest data about the required information for our review were selected through searching in Web of Science, Scopus, Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Ovid, and CINHAL with language limitations of English and German.
   Results: There are 2 groups of HPVs: (1) low-risk HPV types that can lead to genital warts, and (2) high-risk HPV types that are involved in HPV-associated oncogenesis. About 70% of all sexually active women are infected and most of these infections heal within many weeks or months. In the case of HPV-persistence, a risk of preneoplasia or carcinoma exists. These types of viruses are responsible for the existence of genitoanal, gastrointestinal, urinary tract, and head and neck tumors. There is still no definite successful treatment. The detection of HPV-related condylomata occurs macroscopically in women and men, and the diagnosis of the precursors of cervical carcinoma in women is possible by Pap smear.
   Conclusion: For extragenital manifestations, there is no structured early detection program. Meanwhile, studies on HPV vaccines confirm that they should be used for the primary prevention of HPV-dependent diseases. However, we need more research to find out the real advantages and disadvantages of vaccines.
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Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Virology

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